In his Epistle to the Romans, the apostle Paul establishes foundations for many church doctrines: truth and lies, faith and sin, faith and works, spirit and flesh, Jews and Gentiles, justification and sanctification. Paul even identifies the object of our true earthly obedience: civil authority or church authority.

This summary outline of Romans organizes specific details into generalized concepts. Every few verses are combined into a summary statement. Every few summary statements are organized into paragraphs. And each paragraph is labeled to generalize the content it contains. Hover over the biblical reference appended to each summary statement to see the actual words in Scripture.

A summary outline of the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, adapted from the King James Version . . .

Greetings from Paul

Jesus Christ, the Son of David by flesh, the Son of God by spirit and resurrection from the dead. (Romans 1:1-3)
By whom we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations. (Romans 1:4-7)
I long to see you so I may impart unto you some spiritual gift that ye may be established. (Romans 1:8-12)
I am not ashamed of the gospel; for it is the power of God unto salvation, for the Jew and the Greek. (Romans 1:13-17)

God Reveals Truth

That which may be known of God is manifest to Man; for God hath shewed it unto them. (Romans 1:18-21)
They changed the truth of God into a lie, worshipped and served the creature over the Creator. (Romans 1:22-25)
So God gave them up to vile affections, receiving in the themselves that recompence of their error. (Romans 1:26-27)
Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind. (Romans 1:28-31)
Who knowing the judgment of God, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them. (Romans 1:32)

God Judges Sin

The judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. (Romans 2:1-2)
Do you despise God’s goodness and forbearance and longsuffering that leadeth thee to repentance? (Romans 2:3-4)
For God will render to every man according to his deeds: to the Jew first and also to the Gentile. (Romans 2:3-11)
To sin without the law, you perish without the law; to sin in the law, you are judged by the law. (Romans 2:12-16)

Jews Sin against Truth

Thou art called a Jew, who rests in the law, hast a form of knowledge and of the truth in the law. (Romans 2:17-20)
Dost thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law, dishonourest thou God? (Romans 2:21-24)
Circumcision profiteth, if thou keep the law: a law breaker makes circumcision into uncircumcision. (Romans 2:25-29)
What profiteth the circumcision of Jews? Chiefly, for unto them were committed the oracles of God. (Romans 3:1-2)
What if some did not believe? Let God be true, but every man a liar, that He mightest be justified. (Romans 3:3-4 )
In righteous judgment of the lies of unrighteousness, the truth of God’s Word is commended. (Romans 3:5-8)

Gentiles Sin against Truth

Are Gentiles better than Jews? No! Both Jews and Gentiles are all under sin. There is none righteous. (Romans 3:9-18)

Standard of Righteousness

By the works of law shall no flesh be justified, for by law is knowledge of sin and guilt before God. (Romans 3:19-20)
Righteousness without the law is manifested by faith of Jesus Christ unto all that believe. (Romans 3:21-22)
God hath declared Christ’s righteousness, for He is just and the justifier of all which believe in Him. (Romans 3:23-26)

Faith in Christ vs. Works of Law

Boasting in the law is excluded, for man is justified by faith without the works of the law. (Romans 3:27-28)
Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the Jews by faith and the Gentiles through faith. (Romans 3:29-30)
Do we make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, through and by faith we establish the law. (Romans 3:31-4:3)
Work is counted as debt; but to him that believeth on Christ, his faith is counted for righteousness. (Romans 4:4-8)

Justification before Circumcision

Abraham received the sign of circumcision, a seal of righteousness of faith, while yet uncircumcised. (Romans 4:9-12)
To be heir of the world was promised to Abraham through his righteousness of faith not of law. (Romans 4:13-17)
God imputed righteousness to Abraham, who faithfully believed that God would do what He said. (Romans 4:18-22)
God imputes righteousness to any who believe Jesus died for our sins and rose for our justification. (Romans 4:23-25)
Being justified by faith, we have peace with God and access by faith into the grace wherein we stand. (Romans 5:1-2)
And we glory in tribulation, for it worketh patience, experience, and hope, which maketh not ashamed. (Romans 5:3-5)

Justification unto Righteousness

God commendeth His love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us. (Romans 5:6-8)
As enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of His Son; and by His life, we shall be saved. (Romans 5:9-11)
Sin and death entered into the world, for all have sinned, even if not in the similitude of Adam’s sin. (Romans 5:12-14)
By one man’s offence did death reign; much more by one man’s gift of righteousness did life reign. (Romans 5:15-17)
By one’s disobedience many were made sinners; by one’s obedience many were made righteous. (Romans 5:18-19)
Sin reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Christ. (Romans 5:20-21)

Righteousness unto Sanctification

Being baptized into His death and risen up into His life, therefore walk in newness of life. (Romans 6:1-5)
For in that Christ died, He died unto sin once: but in that He liveth, He liveth unto God. (Romans 6:6-11)
Yield not your body as instruments of sin, but yield yourselves as instruments unto God. (Romans 6:12-14)
Once servants of sin, now ye have obeyed from the heart that doctrine which was delivered to you. (Romans 6:15-20)
Being set free from sin unto death, become servants of God unto holiness and everlasting life. (Romans 6:21-23)

Spirit vs. Flesh

The law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth, as in the law of marriage and adultery. (Romans 7:1-3)
We are delivered from the law of death by sinful flesh, and free to serve unto life by newness of spirit. (Romans 7:4-6)
The law is holy; but sin worketh death by that which is good, so sin becometh exceedingly sinful. (Romans 7:7-13)
For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin. (Romans 7:14)
For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I. (Romans 7:15-16)
Now then, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. (Romans 7:17)
In flesh dwelleth no good thing: the good that I would, I do not; the evil which I would not, that I do. (Romans 7:18-20)
I delight in the law of God, but I see another law in my members, warring against my mind. (Romans 7:21-23)
With the mind I myself serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin. (Romans 7:24-25)
Jesus, in the likeness of sinful flesh, condemned sin in the flesh; so walk in the Spirit, not the flesh. (Romans 8:1-4)
Those serving flesh, mind the things of flesh; but those serving the Spirit, mind the things of the Spirit. (Romans 8:5-8)
But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwells in you. (Romans 8:9)
If Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. (Romans 8:10-11)
For as many as are led by the Spirit are sons of God, who mortify the deeds of the flesh and live. (Romans 8:12-15)
We are children of God: if children then heirs; if we suffer with Him, we shall be glorified with Him. (Romans 8:16-18)

Hope against Sin Nature

God subjected man to vanity to deliver him from bondage of corruption into liberty of sons of God. (Romans 8:19-21)
As the whole creation travaileth in pain, we ourselves groan awaiting the redemption of our body. (Romans 8:22-25)
The Spirit helpeth our infirmities, and Christ intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. (Romans 8:26-27)
All works for good; for whom He did foreknow, He predestinated and conformed to Christ’s image. (Romans 8:28-29)
Moreover, whom He predestinated, He called, and He justified, and He glorified. (Romans 8:30)
For God who spared not His Son, but delivered Him up for us, shall also freely give to us all things. (Romans 8:31-34)
Nothing in the material or spiritual world can separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ. (Romans 8:35-39)

Vessels of Clay — Peoples of Nations

To Israel pertaineth adoption, glory, covenants, giving of the law, service of God, and the promises. (Romans 9:1-5)
Children of flesh are not the children of God, but children of promise are counted for the seed. (Romans 9:6-13)
It is not of him that willeth or runneth, but of God that judgeth the destiny of peoples and nations. (Romans 9:14-18)
God is the potter who, from the same lump of clay, makes vessels of honor and dishonour. (Romans 9:19-23)
I will call the Gentiles, which were not my people, and her beloved, which was not beloved. (Romans 9:24-26)
Concerning Israel, God will finish the work upon the earth and cut it short in righteousness. (Romans 9:27-29)
Gentiles attained righteousness by faith; Israel did not for they sought it by works of law. (Romans 9:30-33)

Israel’s Self-Righteous Works

Israel submitted not unto the righteousness of God but worked to establish her own righteousness. (Romans 10:1-3)
Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. (Romans 10:4-7)
Confess with thy mouth, Lord Jesus; Believe with thine heart, He rose again; and you shall be saved. (Romans 10:8-9)
Believe unto righteousness; confess unto salvation; and whosoever believeth shall not be ashamed. (Romans 10:10-11)
Whosoever, Jew or Greek, shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. (Romans 10:12-13)
How shall they believe? Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (Romans 10:14-17)
Did Israel hear? Yes, for the sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends thereof. (Romans 10:18-19)
I was found by them who sought Me not, but a disobedient and gainsaying Israel rejected Me. (Romans 10:20-21)

Chosen People — Remnant of Israel

Hath God forsaken His people Israel? No! For He hath reserved a remnant per the election of grace. (Romans 11:1-6)
The rest were blinded: a spirit given to slumber, eyes that should not see, ears that should not hear. (Romans 11:7-10)
Israel is not forsaken, for if their disgrace be salvation unto Gentiles, how much more their grace. (Romans 11:11-12)
If Israel’s disgrace be reconciliation of the world, their grace shall be but life from the dead. (Romans 11:13-15)

Until the Fullness of the Gentiles

Be not highminded, for Israel was cut off for unbelief, and Gentiles were grafted in by faith. (Romans 11:16-21)
If Gentiles turn to unbelief, they shalt be cut off; if Israel repents of unbelief, she shall be grafted in. (Romans 11:22-23)
For Gentiles were grafted contrary to nature, how much more shall Israel be grafted into her own tree. (Romans 11:24)

Branches and Olive Trees

Be not ignorant or wise in conceit, blindness is happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles. (Romans 11:25-26)
For this is My covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins. (Romans 11:27)
Israel is the enemy of the gospel for the Gentiles but is beloved of the election for the Fathers. (Romans 11:28-32)
For of the Lord, and through the Lord, and to the Lord, are all things, to Him be the glory. (Romans 11:33-36)

Sanctification of Sacrificial Love

Present your body a living, holy sacrifice; renew your mind unto the perfect will of God. (Romans 12:1-2)
Think soberly, for we have many members in one body, and all members dealt a measure of faith. (Romans 12:3-8)
Let love be pure; rejoice in hope; patient in tribulation; be not highminded; bless and curse not. (Romans 12:9-16)
Recompense to no man evil for evil; be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:17-21)

Support True Ministers of God

Be subject unto the powers ordained by the authority of God or suffer judgment from the same. (Romans 13:1-2)
The powers ordained of God are ministers of God to thee for good; so be subject for conscience sake. (Romans 13:3-5)
Render tribute, custom, fear, and honor unto the ministers of God, who do God’s work continually. (Romans 13:6-7)
Love worketh no ill to his neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law. (Romans 13:8-10)
Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof. (Romans 13:11-14)

Kingdom of God — Faith of One and Another

Judge neither the strong in faith nor despise the weak in faith, for God shall perfect the faith of all. (Romans 14:1-4)
Let every man be persuaded in his mind; whether he lives or whether he dies, do it unto the Lord. (Romans 14:5-9)
Judge not thy brother nor cause thy brother to sin, for we all shall give account unto God. (Romans 14:10-13)
Let not your good be spoken of evil; for the kingdom of God is righteousness, peace, and joy. (Romans 14:14-17)
For he that in these things serveth Christ is acceptable to God and approved of men. (Romans 14:18-21)
Hast thou faith? Have it to thyself before God; and do not doubt, for whatever is not of faith is sin. (Romans 14:22-23)
Let the strong of faith bear the infirmities of the weak, for Christ saved even those who killed Him. (Romans 15:1-3)
Be like minded and receive one another, for Christ also received us to the glory of God. (Romans 15:4-7)

Consecration of Israel and Gentiles

Christ ministered truth: confirming the circumcision of Israel and granting mercy unto the Gentiles. (Romans 15:8-12)
Be filled with peace and joy in believing, that ye may abound in hope through the Holy Ghost. (Romans 15:13-14)
May the offering up of the Gentiles be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost. (Romans 15:15-22)

Paul’s Ministry Continues

Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come unto Rome to minister unto you. (Romans 15:23-24)
I now deliver charity from the saints of Macedonia and Achaia to the poor saints of Jerusalem. (Romans 15:25-28)
Now pray that God may protect me and that the saints in Jerusalem will receive this charity. (Romans 15:29-33)

Support True Ministers of God, again

Welcome Phebe; assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you, for she is a comforter. (Romans 16:1-2)
Greet Priscilla and Aquila who risk their lives for me, and Epaenetus who is a new believer. (Romans 16:3-5)
Salute and greet with a holy kiss our fellow servants, who are beloved and suffer persecution. (Romans 16:6-16)

Reject False Ministers of God

Be wise unto good, simple unto evil, and avoid those who corrupt the doctrines with deceitful lies. (Romans 16:17-20)


May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all, of the whole church. (Romans 16:21-24)
Glory to Christ, who revealed the mystery of obedience through faith per scripture and prophets. (Romans 16:25-27)